Germany's Oldendorff Carriers ordered Post-Panamax at Jiangsu Eastern Heavy Industry. The owner confirmed its order of a 97,000 deadweight eco Post-Panamax bulk carrier at Jiangsu Eastern Heavy...
Shallow Water: Waves running from deep water into shallow water increase in steepness, hence their tendency to break. Therefore, with an onshore wind there will naturally be more whitecaps over shallow waters than over the deeper water farther offshore. It is only over relatively deep water that the sea criteria can be used with confidence.
Swell: Swell is the name given to waves, generally of considerable length, which were raised in some distant area and which have moved into the vicinity of the ship, or to waves raised nearby that continue after the wind has abated or changed direction. The direction of swell waves is usually different from the direction of the wind and the sea waves. Swell waves are not considered when estimating wind speed and direction. Only those waves raised by the wind blowing at the time are used for estimation. The winddriven waves show a greater tendency to break when superimposed on the crests of swell, and hence, more whitecaps may be formed than if the swell were absent. Under these conditions, the use of the sea criteriamay result in a slight overestimate of the wind speed.
Precipitation: Heavy rain has a damping or smoothing effect on the sea surface that is mechanical in character. Since the sea surface will therefore appear less disturbed than would be the case without the rain, the wind speed may be underestimated unless the smoothing effect is taken into account.
Ice: Even small concentrations of ice floating on the sea surface will dampen waves considerably, and concentrations averaging greater than about seven-tenths will eliminate waves altogether. Young sea ice, which in the early stages of formation has a thick soupy consistency and later takes on a rubbery appearance, is very effective in dampening waves. Consequently, the sea criteria cannot be used with any degree of confidence when sea ice is present. In higher latitudes, the presence of an ice field some distance to windward of the ship may be suspected if, when the ship is not close to any coast, the wind is relatively strong but the seas abnormally underdeveloped. The edge of the ice field acts like a coastline, and the short fetch between the ice and the ship is not sufficient for the wind to fully develop the seas.
Wind Shifts: Following a rapid change in the direction of the wind, as occurs at the passage of a cold front, the new wind will flatten out to a great extent the waves which were present before the wind shift. This happens because the direction of the wind after the shift may differ by 90° or more from the direction of the waves, which does not change. Hence, the wind may oppose the progress of the waves and quickly dampen them out. At the same time, the new wind begins to generate its own waves on top of this dissipating swell, and it is not long before the cross pattern of waves gives the sea a "choppy" or confused appearance. It is during the first few hours nofollowing the wind shift that the appearance of the sea surface may not provide a reliable indication of wind speed. The wind is normally stronger than the sea would indicate, as old waves are being flattened out, and the new wave pattern develops.
Night Observations: On a dark night, when it is impossible to see the sea clearly, the observer may estimate the apparent wind from its effect on the ship's rigging, flags, etc., or simply the "feel" of the wind.