Germany's Oldendorff Carriers ordered Post-Panamax at Jiangsu Eastern Heavy Industry. The owner confirmed its order of a 97,000 deadweight eco Post-Panamax bulk carrier at Jiangsu Eastern Heavy...
At sea, with virtually no roll or pitch, results should approach those on land. However, even a gentle roll causes large errors. Under these conditions observational errors of 10-16 miles are not unreasonable. With a moderate sea, errors of 30 miles or more are common. In a heavy sea, any useful observations are virtually impossible to obtain. Single altitude observations in a moderate sea can be in error by a matter of degrees.
When the horizon is obscured by ice or haze, polar navigators can sometimes obtain better results with an artificial horizon sextant than with a marine sextant. Some artificial horizon sextants have provision for making observations with the natural horizon as a reference, but results are not generally as satisfactory as by marine sextant. Because of their more complicated optical systems, and the need for providing a horizontal reference, artificialorizon sextants are generally much more costly to manufacture than marine sextants.
Altitudes observed by artificial horizon sextants are subject to the same errors as those observed by marine sextant, except that the dip (height of eye) correction does not apply. Also, when the center of the Sun or Moon is observed, no correction for semidiameter is required.