Germany's Oldendorff Carriers ordered Post-Panamax at Jiangsu Eastern Heavy Industry. The owner confirmed its order of a 97,000 deadweight eco Post-Panamax bulk carrier at Jiangsu Eastern Heavy...
Frictional Resistance: arising due to the viscosity of water, i.e. tangential stresses. Because of viscosity & velocity gradient in the direction normal to the ship hull, there is a mass of fluid being dragged along with a ship. Energy necessary to drag the mass of fluid is the work done by the ship against the frictional resistance.
Eddy-making Resistance: contributed from normal pressure applied on a hull. Due to the viscosity of the fluid, the flow separates from the surface of a hull and eddies (vortices) are formed. These eddies induce the changes in the velocity field and thus change the normal pressures on a hull. The changes in the pressure field around a ship result in the eddy-making resistance.
Air resistance (mainly resulting from wind resistance).
Appendage resistances: are caused by the appendages of a ship, such as propellers, rudders and bilge keels.