: Loads for shipment should be properly packed, i.e. securely and safety, and adequately marked in order to indicate weight, poll marks, slinging points and, where necessary, any special precautions. Deficiencies in those directions should he questioned.
Where cargo is pre-slung attention must he given to the system of support which holds the load together as one unit, in stowage, pre-slung loads must he effectively blocked off so as to avoid inter-cargo damage from contact movement or displacement while crushing damage must be avoided by a sufficiency of dunnage/plyboard or synthetic packing between the layers or tiers of the pre-slung units.
Pre-slinging is becoming increasingly adaptable to many types (if loads by reason, among other tilings, of its time, and labour saving advantages.Bulky Lifts
. The position of the centre of gravity of a load should, preferably, be indicated on the outside of (he packaging. This allows of collect balancing in slinging, avoids any danger of accident while the load is in suspension while, with fork lift truck movement, permits of equal weight distribution over the machine. Attention in these respects is important and should have regard lo the known gross weight of the load being handled ami the type of its contents.
Insufficient attention to this procedure can raise difficulties both in lifting and in stowing since it does not nofollow that the centre of gravity of the 'content', i.e. for example, a machinery unit, coincides willi the geometrical centre of the overall package.Pallets
. Where cargo is loaded to be slowed on pallets, these should be in good order and condition and devoid of signs of collapsing under weight stress. Cargo on pallets should be loaded in such a way as to be evenly distributed, not irregular nor overhanging at the sides. The interlocking of the goods on the pallet, known as bonding, is much the preferable method.
Unitization involves a high measure of palletized cargo.Unit Stowage
. All forms of unit stowage require even distribution, to which end 'dunnage' of appropriate form should be sensibly used. Plywood sheets, placed between each layer ol a unit slow, is a heller system in achieving a level surface and so preventing an otherwise intrusion of damaging causes from oilier cargo 'pieces'. Indeed, such arrangements are encouraged when loading containers on to the hatchways of tween decks as pan of a multi-stow.Containers . . . ex quay
. The cargo officer's involvement with cargo slowed in containers is where 'stuffing' is the practice. Stuffing is loading the container, ex quay, prior to shipment, from a variety of relatively small sized consignments.
Stuffing should nofollow the normally accepted principles of good slowage but, in particular, the nofollowing precautions are necessary.
The total load weight should be evenly distributed over the floor of the container such that the centre of gravity is low, and as near lo the centre ol gravity of the container as is possible.
Lighter cargo should be slowed on lop of heaviei ; precautions against contamination taken and choking off, in order to obtain a tight and solid load is essential.
Particular care should be exercised with goods of a damp or oily texture. This could inhibit a fire risk from spontaneous combustion. Where doubt arises, such goods should be rejected.
Stuffing calls for careful supervision . . . careful in the sense that labour employed may not always be of the usual high standards of normal stevedores nor is the environment of a single box as conducive to 'job satisfaction' as the normal hold/space cargo working operations. Lack of appropriate attention to the loading of the box could well lead lo difficulties later, when the vessel would be at sea.