When a plane surface reflects a light ray, the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence. The angle between the first and final directions of a ray of light that has undergone double reflection in the same plane is twice the angle the two reflecting surfaces make with each other (Figure below).1601

In this figure, AB is a ray of light froma celestial body. The index mirror of the sextant is at B, the horizon glass at C, and the eye of the observer at D. Construction lines EF and CF are perpendicular to the index mirror and horizon glass, respectively. Lines BG and CG are parallel to these mirrors. Therefore, angles BFC and BGC are equal because their sides are mutually perpendicular. Angle BGC is the inclination of the two reflecting surfaces. The ray of light AB is reflected at mirror B, proceeds to mirror C, where it is again reflected, and then continues on to the eye of the observer at D. Since the angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence,

ABE = EBC, and ABC = 2EBC.

BCF = FCD, and BCD = 2BCF.

Since an exterior angle of a triangle equals the sum of the two non adjacent interior angles,




Substituting 2EBC for ABC, and 2BCF for BCD in the first of these equations,

BDC = 2EBC-2BCF, or BDC=2 (EBC-BCF).

Since BFC=EBC - BCF, and BFC = BGC, therefore

BDC = 2BFC = 2BGC.

That is, BDC, the angle between the first and last directions of the ray of light, is equal to 2BGC, twice the angle of inclination of the reflecting surfaces. Angle BDC is the altitude of the celestial body.

If the two mirrors are parallel, the incident ray from any observed bodymust be parallel to the observer's line of sight through the horizon glass. In that case, the body's altitude would be zero. The angle that these two reflecting surfaces make with each other is one half the observed angle. The graduations on the arc reflect this half angle relationship between the angle observed and the mirrors' angle.